written by | April 21, 2022

Articles of Association (AoA) Of Company in India

To handle its internal investigations, every corporation requires a set of guidelines. A firm's Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association represent two important commercial papers. The AoA outlines the organisation's internal rules. It includes the firm's bye-laws. As a result, the directors and other shareholders must carry out their duties in terms of business administration, accounting, and auditing in compliance with the Articles of Association.

Did you know?

Under Section 6 of the Companies Act 2013, the Companies Act overrides Memorandum and Articles.

What are Articles of Association?

An article of association (AoA) is the laws and guidelines, sometimes known as by-laws, that regulate the firm's internal administration. It is the second most crucial document that the registrar has to fill out at the stage of the firm's establishment. It specifies the vote and other rights of directors, officials, and investors, the method and format inside which operations must conduct, and the method and format in which one can modify existing rules.  

The public business limited by guarantee does not require using their (Articles of Association) AoA. A common corporate body by guarantors may either draught its own 'Articles' or follow the norms and regulations set out in Table F of Section one of the Corporations Act of 2013.

Different Forms of the Articles of Association

The Corporations Act of 2013 defines several types of Articles of Association. The firm's AoA might be one of the following – 



Table F

Article of association of a corporation limited by shares.

Table G

Article of association of firms limited by guarantee with shareholding.

Table H

Article of association of a corporation limited by guarantee but lacking in share capital.

Table I

Article of association of a limitless corporation with share capital.

Table J

Article of association of a limited corporation with no share capital.

A corporation may implement all or some of the rules in the sample Article, relying on their relevance.

Also Read: Minutes of Meeting- Sample Format With Best Practices

Details Contained in the AoA

AoA must comprise complete information about –

  • Who retains the power distribution between directors, officials, shareowners, etc. 
  • Who retains the privilege of voting and overrule.
  • The existence and structure wherein the firms carry out the main activities. 
  • The framework for the firm's actual organisational leadership.
  • The method of the official audit through which officials can take executive judgments. 
  • The structures in which power to take the final verdict depends.
  • And to form a majority and make some important conclusions, a company requires a process, a total number of votes, etc. 

Aside from it, it also has the authority and obligations of the firm's members, their names and contact details, and some other important information about the contributing investors.

Importance of Articles of Association

The AoA (Articles of Association) is highly significant documentation for a corporation since it contains the norms, guidelines, and bye-laws for both the firm's internal management and supervision. The AoA is mostly for the organisation's corporate administration. The AoA outline the full powers of boards as well as other authorities. The AoA outlines fundamental rights and duties. Inside the AoA of a privately owned company, one can outline these limits. The terms of the organisation also include every provision about the stocks. The articles of affiliation are recourse in a subject of internal controversy.

There are numerous regulations, rights, and requirements that contribute to the significance of an AoA. Let us look at it in detail: 

  • According to the provisions of the AoA, they conduct the assessment of personal rights and properties. And also the nomination of directors and some other important people.
  • According to the rules of the provision, one can arrange all types of meetings, whether boardroom conferences, annual conferences, committee meetings, and every other sort of conference.
  • This AoA deal with managerial activities.
  • The AoA addresses investors' right to vote as well as other obligations.
  • The provisions govern auditing and accounting.
  • The articles govern scheduled time, dismissal, and compensation.
  • The articles determine the debt capacity.
  • The corporation is wound up per the articles.
  • The articles govern the dividend strategy.

As a result, the AoA is critical in any firm or corporation since they govern all internal administration.

Features of Articles of Association

Following are the important features of the Articles of Association.

  • As a result, the AoA is critical in any firm or corporation since they govern all internal administration.
  • It is a component of a firm's charter.
  • It is a commitment between the participants as well as amongst themselves.
  • It also specifies the responsibilities of investors.
  • Certain legal terms are part of articles of incorporation, while investors adopt other elements to become the firm's by-laws.
  • According to the law, it will deem all the illogical provisions, and in such cases, they usually declare it ultra vires.
  • Anybody can view the articles of the organisation as they are public documents.
  • The creditor of the organisation has a particular interest in the supply of the AoA.

Clauses of Articles of Association

  • Adoption of Preliminary Contracts: A declaration approving all initial agreements.
  • Amount and worth of shares: It is necessary to state the sum of stock and the price of the stock.
  • Preference share issuance: You have to specify the distribution of total preference shares.
  • Share allocation: One must include in the AoA about total distribution of shares and who has got the allocation and its worth. 
  • Calls on stocks: It is very important to mention the total money calls on stocks.
  • Lien on shares: If a person is incapable of paying their obligation to the firm, the corporation will keep control of the assets.
  • Transmit and distribution of share capital: One must include all the share transfer requirements.
  • Nominations: One must list all the nominations in AoA.
  • Share disgorgement: How might a firm lose its shareholders?
  • Changes in the capital: The regulations relating to shares change one has to include in the articles of organisation.
  • Buyback: How could a firm buy back its current owners' shares?
  • Share diploma: The clauses for the certificates one must mention in the articles.
  • Dematerialisation: It is the way of transforming assets into digital form.

Understanding Articles of Association

The AoA, for example, addresses the privileges of the firm members. The AoA is secondary to the MoA in terms of hierarchy. The function of articles is secondary to the importance of the MoA. The memorandum of association is recognised as the firm's charter of formation. Following its approval, AoA outlines the rights and obligations of the ruling body and its authorities concerning the business. Furthermore, the articles outline the manner and format whereby the firm operations must carry on and the modifications in the firm's internal rules that they have to implement.

Also Read: What is Working Capital?


By a quick decree, a business can change its AoA at any moment. Nevertheless, the power to change the Rules is under some specific constraints or prohibitions:

  • Not in conflict with any law's requirements.
  • It is not unlawful or contrary to public policy.
  • Not in conflict with a governmental or court judgment.
  • It must've been genuine.
  • It shouldn't be deceptive.
  • It should not originate in a bond violation.
  • It should not increase members' obligations.

Provisions Related to Printing and Signature of Articles

One must print the articles, split into parts, sequentially marked, and acknowledged by every subscriber to the MoA amid one or more eyewitnesses. These eyewitnesses shall authenticate the signatures and affix their address and profession.


The AoA is an official record that serves as the business's book of rules, defining the obligations of its administrators and the many ways in which investors can wield power above the boards and the firm. Whereas the MoA establishes the firm's aims, the articles provide the procedures for achieving those goals.

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Q: Why do you require AoA for your firm?


Under the Companies Act, each firm set up in India must have Rules; otherwise, you cannot confirm it as a lawful formation. This rule applies to all sorts of businesses.

Q: Can anyone enforce AoA, and who has the authority to do so?


The Rules of a business tie the firm to its associates and the associates to one another; they create a contract between themselves. An associate might challenge the corporation and conversely enforce it to execute the agreement.

Q: Do the AoA take precedence over the firm's Act?


The Companies Act 2013 supersedes the Rules. Within the event of current corporations, the provisions of the Companies Act would take precedence above that of the accessible articles since they conflict with the Act.

Q: Where can I locate the Articles of Association?


The AoA of any company is accessible on the Ministry of Corporate Affairs webpage underneath the Public documentation category.

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