The central board, state boards, and the duties of CPCB are covered under the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The Central Board, which is established by the National Govt, is designated as the Central Pollution Control Board, following Section 3 of the Waters (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. They muse see the Central Board as a permanent successor corporate entity with authority to purchase, retain, and dispose of that as well. They can make an agreement with the group or individual under Section 3(3) of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The power of the Central Pollution Control Board is to sue or get sued under the central board.
Section 4 states that the State Pollution Control Council, a division of the State Legislature, must appoint members to the State Boards. They must view each State Board as a permanent successor corporate entity with the authority to possess, buy, and sell off assets. It may also sign an agreement with some other parties or individuals. They are capable of suing on behalf of State Boards.
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Functions of Central Pollution Control Board
The Central Board must carry out the duties listed below in accordance with section 16 of the Waters (Prevention & Control Pollution) Act:-
Advise Central Government
The CPCB must recommend the Central Govt on preventing and reducing water contamination.
Co-ordination With the State Board
To address conflicts between Active Boards, the CPCB will regulate their respective actions.
Technical Assistance and Guidance to State Boards
In order for State Boards to conduct investigations and studies into the issue of water contamination and to avoid, manage, or reduce it, the CPCB must offer technical help and direction.
Various Training Programs
The Central Pollution Control Board must organise and plan programs for those involved in the avoidance, management, or decrease in water contamination.
Organising a Comprehensive Program
The Central Pollution Control Board also has the task of developing a thorough media campaign to manage and stop water contamination.
Functions as State Board
The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act's provision 18(2) grants the Central Board the "authority to make instructions" to carry out all the State Board's duties. Each State Board will be bound by these instructions in writing, as long as the National or State Governments can do so.
Publication of Statistical and Technical Data
The Central Pollution Control Board must gather, compile, and publish technological and statistical data about water contamination. This information they use for efficient prevention and management, as well as the creation of guidelines, regulations, or instructions about the processing and disposal of wastewater and commercial pollutants, as well as the dissemination of information, are all linked.
Laying Down Standard for Stream and Well
One requires the Central Pollution Control Board to establish, alter, or repeal stream regulations after consulting with a relevant State Govt.
Execution of Program at National Level
The Central Pollution Control Board must plan a national program the avoidance, manage, or decrease water pollution.
Functions of State Pollution Control Board
The State Board requires following the duties under section 17 of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
Planning Comprehensive Programs
The State Pollution Control Board function must develop and ensure the implementation of a comprehensive strategy for the avoidance, mitigation, or decrease of a watercourse and quite well contamination in the province.
On any issue involving the avoidance, management, or decrease in water contamination, the SPCB provides advice to the state legislature. For any industry whose operation is likely to contaminate a river or well, the State Pollution Control Board must disclose it to the state authority.
Dissemination of Information
The State Pollution Control Board must gather details about water contamination and its avoidance, management, or decrease and share it.
Investigation and Research
The SPCB must carry out, support, and take part in any inquiry. Additionally, study into the issues associated with water contamination and its reduction, management, or avoidance.
Organising Training Program
The SPCB must work with the National Board to plan public educational programs and conduct training for anyone involved in initiatives aimed at preventing, reducing, or controlling water contamination.
Inspection of Sewage and Trade Effluents Plants
The State Pollution Control Board also requires examining the facilities that handle wastewater and industrial effluents. Additionally, they must examine any blueprints, designs, or other information about facilities installed for purifying water, treatments, and wastewater or industrial effluent disposal services associated with the granting of any permission.
Standards for Causing Discharge of Water
The Pollution Control Board requires reviewing the no objection certificate and adjusting the regulations for wastewater and commercial effluents. They must categorise state waters and evaluate the adequacy of receiving waters caused by wastewater discharges.
Economic Methods of Treatment of Sewage
Given the unique climatic, soil, and river basin circumstances in various areas, the State Pollution Control Commission must develop cost-effective and dependable technologies for the remediation of wastewater and commercial effluents.
Methods Regarding Utilisation of Sewage
The State Pollution Control Board must develop strategies for using appropriate trade pollutants and wastewater in farming.
Methods for Disposal of Sewage
Due to the predominant situation of limited river flow that doesn't offer a minimal degree of diluting for a significant portion of the year, the State Pollution Control Board must develop effective techniques for wastewater and commerce effluent discharge on lands.
Standards for Treatment of Sewage
The State Pollution Control Board must establish the requirements for wastewater treatment and the commercial effluents for discharging into a specific stream. It considers the bare minimum of justice if diluting is possible in that channel and following the release of appropriate effluents if there is permission for the threshold limits of pollution in that watercourse. The State Board also carries out duties that CPCB or the State Government delegates occasionally.
Powers of Central Pollution Control Board
The following are the powers of the Central Pollution Control Board:
- Section 18 of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act gives the CPCB the authority to order the SPCB.
- If one of its directives is not followed, the Central Pollution Control Board does have the authority to carry out all of the duties of a State Pollution Control Board.
- According to section 33A of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, the CPCB has the authority to issue directives that may restrict, close, or regulate any activity, business, or procedure or that may regulate the provision of power, fresh water, or other services.
Powers of State Pollution Control Board
Given below are the powers of the State Pollution Control Board:
- Ability to gather information
- Ability to take samples
- Admission and Inspection Permission
- Deny or revoke permission for the formation of any company
- Perform a specific task
- Initiate emergency measures in the event of river or well contamination. The ability to petition the courts for a temporary injunction against the suspected river or well contamination
- Give directions
- Put limitations upon new outlets and emissions
The CPCB and the SPCB now have some essential powers and duties under the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. The role of the pollution control board is very crucial in the world. All of these involve giving the Boards the ability to carry out their responsibilities for environmental regulation. The Boards many times approached the court's authority to enforce a number of their judgments, ensuring that environmental violators don't really evade their obligations.
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