written by | May 18, 2022

What Is Depreciation as per Companies Act?

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When you buy any property or asset on or after April 1, 2014, you are subject to depreciation under the Companies Act of 2013. It specifies the usable life of various assets and makes no depreciation amounts recommendations. To determine the amortisation rate according to the Corporations Act, 2013, you could use depreciation calculation and the usable life stated in schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

Did you know?

An adjusted cost basis is the asset's original cost basis used to compute depreciation deductions adjusted by allowable increases or decreases.

What Is Depreciation?

Depreciation is the measurement of an amortisation asset's decline in value due to usage, the passing of time, or expiration due to technical or industry developments. During the investment's projected expected lifetime, they charge depreciation in a reasonable percentage of the realisable value in each financial period. We can regard depreciation as such expenditure since it benefits the corporation that holds the depreciable resources since everything declines worth over time. The degradation of depreciating assets one can realise as the part of income and loss account as an expenditure.

Depreciation, which is recorded as an item in the income and loss account, enables the corporation to adjust for the money lost on depreciating assets. Depreciable properties are assets that one can deduct and use for commercial purposes. The company treats investment value as a firm's expense above the life of the assets. Most concrete assets, including buildings, machines, automobiles, fixtures and fittings, technology and hardware, and intangibles, such as trademarks, licenses, and software applications, depreciate.

Why Is It Charged?

Depreciation is a tough accounting concept because it will not depict actual cash inflow. The intent of depreciation is really a bill to profit & loss account for a part of a property that relates to the income generated by that property. Most of us know it as the matching principle. Income and expenses show up in the company's financial account in the same accounting periods, giving the best perspective of how well a business is conducted in that accounting period.

The problem with such a matching approach is there's only a tenuous link between income generation and a particular property. There is no mechanism to correlate a particular fixed asset to specific revenue because one must view all of a firm's property as a unified profit-generating system. Whenever the following conditions are met, the business organisation will halt depreciating the company's property:

  • If the commercial asset has attained the decline stage 
  • The business concerned disposes of it.

In case they didn't charge any depreciation, they have to wipe off entire company assets as a cost as quickly as they purchase them. It'd lead to huge losses whenever the transactions occur, followed by extremely high profits when they recognise an equivalent amount of income, with no balancing expenditure. Consequently, a corporation that doesn't even depreciate its assets would have very volatile financial performance.

Also Read: Section 186 of the Companies Act, 2013

Types of Depreciation

Depreciation is determined yearly according to the statute's procedures. Depreciation is calculated in two ways under the Corporations Act:

  • Written down value method (WDVM) 
  • Straight-line method (SLM)

According to the Income Tax Act of 1961, they estimate degradation using the WDV Methodology using the blocks of property criterion. The Indian Companies Act, 2013 stipulates the usable life of different types of investments in schedule II to determine depreciation rates using the SLM, WDV, or unit of production methods. The way of depreciation chosen has an impact on the profits as well as the carrying worth of a firm's properties.

How to Use the Depreciation Calculator?

We will understand with the help of an example.

For instance, XYZ Private Limited spent ₹ 60,000 on a desktop on April 1, 2021. He seeks to investigate the depreciation rate for the fiscal year 2021-22 on March 31, 2022.

The percentage of resale value is set at 5%. The desktop has a three-year life cycle, according to the depreciation schedule.

Step 1: Adjust the investment's buying to 1-4-2021.

Step 2: Input ₹ 60,000 as the asset's price.

Step 3: Insert 5 in the Salvage/Residual space

Step 4: Limit the asset's life span to 3.

Step 5: Choose WDV or SLM as your depreciation method from the menu list.

Step 6: Select Calculate from the drop-down menu.

Now you see the depreciation graph

Important Notes While Using the Calculator

  • You have to enter the dates in this format only dd/mm/yyyy. Certain other data patterns usually the calculators do not support.
  • When you have obtained an input tax credit upon that property, input the price of the asset minus the GST part.
  • If you haven't claimed the input tax credit upon that property, input the property's price, along with the GST part.
  • The typical residual value percentage is 5%—only input 5 in the calculator. Whenever your firm's residual value is unusual, insert only the quantity without the percentage (%) symbol.
  • You have to refer to the depreciation table for whatever asset you purchase. You can find the table in this article below.
  • SLM- When you choose the straight-line method, it computes depreciation expense using the SLM equation, and this calculation creates the chart.
  • WDV- When you choose the written down value method, then it computes depreciation expense using the WDV equation, and this calculation creates the chart.

Other Factors for Depreciation as per Companies Act, 2013

Whenever the time provided in the plans differs from the time the company uses to compute depreciation, the methodology of depreciation that the business employs, one has to include this report in the financial accounts, as will the usable lives of properties companies use to compute depreciation. Godowns, workspaces, and worker housing are not included in industrial plants. Depreciation for such holdings depends on a pro-rata grounds immediately preceding the date of acquiring or, in the occasion of a selling, decommissioning, destruction, or breakdown, the date might well be, till the date of expulsion, sale ruination, or dismantling in any financial year whenever there is an alteration toward any property, disposal dismantling, selling, or ruination of any assets.

Furthermore, the useful life mentioned in portion C of the schedule pertains to every property and in circumstances where the prices of a specific section of a property are significant to the property's overall value, and its usable life differs from the real application of those other assets. The functional lifetime of each component that is important to the company has to be calculated separately and appropriately.

Why Is There a Difference Between Depreciation Charged Under the Income Tax Act and the Companies Act?

The corporation claims depreciation for 2 reasons: Tax and accounting 

Depreciation in accounting falls into two categories: a drop in the asset's worth and the assignment of the asset's price to the asset's functional time. Depreciation is determined based on the usable existence of assets rather than the value of depreciation under the Companies Act of 2013.

Depreciation is a taxation term to describe the decrease in total tax liability that a corporation makes to lower the sum of taxes it owes. The government allows the depreciation of resources as a cost to the firm. While coming at revenue underneath the top of profits from business and occupation underneath the Income Tax Act 1961. Beginning with the year when they start using the asset for the 1st time and depending on the frame of investments, one calculates depreciation based on the specification of the rate inside the Income Tax Act.

Depreciation Rate Chart as per Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013

Nature of Assets

Useful

Life

Rate

[SLM]

Rate

[WDV]

(I) Buildings [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) Building (other than factory buildings) RCC Frame Structure

60

1.58%

4.87%

(b) Building (other than factory buildings) other than RCC

Frame Structure

30

3.17%

9.50%

(c) Factory buildings

30

3.17%

9.50%

(d) Fences, wells, tube wells

5

19.00%

45.07%

(e) Other (including temporary structure, etc.)

3

31.67%

63.16%

(II) Bridges, culverts, bunkers, etc. [NESD]

30

3.17%

9.50%

(III) Roads [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) Carpeted Roads

 

 

 

(i) Carpeted Roads – RCC

10

9.50%

25.89%

(ii) Carpeted Roads – other than RCC

5

19.00%

45.07%

(b) Non-carpeted roads

3

31.67%

63.16%

(IV) Plant and Machinery

 

 

 

(a) General rate applicable to Plant and Machinery not

covered under Special Plant and Machinery

 

 

 

(i) Plant and Machinery other than continuous process plant not

covered under specific

15

6.33%

18.10%

(ii) Continuous process plant for which no special rate has been

prescribed under (ii) below

8

11.88%

31.23%

(b) Special Plant and Machinery

 

 

 

(i) Plant and Machinery related to production and exhibition

of Motion Picture Films

 

 

 

1 Cinematograph films – Machinery used in the production and

exhibition of cinematograph films, recording and reproducing

equipments, developing machines, printing machines, editing

machines, synchronizers and studio lights

13

7.31%

20.58%

2 Projecting equipment for exhibition of films

13

7.31%

20.58%

(ii) Plant and Machinery used in glass

 

 

 

1 Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces

– Recuperative and regenerative glass melting furnaces

13

7.31%

20.58%

2 Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces

– Moulds [NESD]

8

11.88%

31.23%

3 Float Glass Melting Furnaces [NESD]

10

9.50%

25.89%

(iii) Plant and Machinery used in mines and quarries Portable

underground machinery and earth moving machinery used in

open cast mining

8

11.88%

31.23%

(iv) Plant and Machinery used in Telecommunications [NESD]

 

 

 

1 Towers

18

5.28%

15.33%

2 Telecom transceivers, switching centres, transmission and

other network equipment

13

7.31%

20.58%

3 Telecom – Ducts, Cables and optical fibre

18

5.28%

15.33%

4 Satellites

18

5.28%

15.33%

(v) Plant and Machinery used in exploration, production and

refining oil and gas [NESD]

 

 

 

1 Refineries

25

3.80%

11.29%

2 Oil and gas assets (including wells), processing plant and

facilities

25

3.80%

11.29%

3 Petrochemical Plant

25

3.80%

11.29%

4 Storage tanks and related equipment

25

3.80%

11.29%

5 Pipelines

30

3.17%

9.50%

6 Drilling Rig

30

3.17%

9.50%

7 Field operations (above ground) Portable boilers, drilling tools,

well-head tanks, etc.

8

11.88%

31.23%

8 Loggers

8

11.88%

31.23%

(vi) Plant and Machinery used in generation, transmission and

distribution of power [NESD]

 

 

 

1 Thermal / Gas / Combined Cycle Power Generation Plant

40

2.38%

7.22%

2 Hydro Power Generation Plant

40

2.38%

7.22%

3 Nuclear Power Generation Plant

40

2.38%

7.22%

4 Transmission lines, cables and other network assets

40

2.38%

7.22%

5 Wind Power Generation Plant

22

4.32%

12.73%

6 Electric Distribution Plant

35

2.71%

8.20%

7 Gas Storage and Distribution Plant

30

3.17%

9.50%

8 Water Distribution Plant including pipelines

30

3.17%

9.50%

(vii) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of

 

 

 

1 Sinter Plant

20

4.75%

13.91%

2 Blast Furnace

20

4.75%

13.91%

3 Coke Ovens

20

4.75%

13.91%

4 Rolling mill in steel plant

20

4.75%

13.91%

5 Basic Oxygen Furnace Converter

25

3.80%

11.29%

(viii) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of non ferrous metals

 

 

 

1 Metal pot line [NESD]

40

2.38%

7.22%

2 Bauxite crushing and grinding section

40

2.38%

7.22%

3 Digester Section [NESD]

40

2.38%

7.22%

4 Turbine [NESD]

40

2.38%

7.22%

5 Equipments for Calcinations [NESD]

40

2.38%

7.22%

6 Copper Smelter [NESD]

40

2.38%

7.22%

7 Roll Grinder

40

2.38%

7.22%

8 Soaking Pit

30

3.17%

9.50%

9 Annealing Furnace

30

3.17%

9.50%

10 Rolling Mills

30

3.17%

9.50%

11 Equipments for Scalping, Slitting, etc. [NSED]

30

3.17%

9.50%

12 Surface Miner, Ripper Dozer, etc. used in mines

25

3.80%

11.29%

13 Copper refining plant [NSED]

25

3.80%

11.29%

(ix) Plant and Machinery used in medical and surgical operations

[NESD]

 

 

 

1 Electrical Machinery, X-ray and electrotherapeutic apparatus

and accessories thereto, medical, diagnostic equipments, namely,

Cat-scan, Ultrasound Machines, ECG Monitors, etc.

13

7.31%

20.58%

2 Other Equipments

15

6.33%

18.10%

(x) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of pharmaceuticals

and chemicals [NESD]

 

 

 

1 Reactors

20

4.75%

13.91%

2 Distillation Columns

20

4.75%

13.91%

3 Drying equipments / Centrifuges and Decanters

20

4.75%

13.91%

4 Vessel / Storage tanks

20

4.75%

13.91%

(xi) Plant and Machinery used in civil construction

 

 

 

1 Concreting, Crushing, Piling Equipments and Road Making

Equipments

12

7.92%

22.09%

2 Heavy Lift Equipments –

 

 

 

– Cranes with capacity more than 100 tons

20

4.75%

13.91%

– Cranes with capacity less than 100 tons

15

6.33%

18.10%

3 Transmission line, TunnellingEquipments [NESD]

10

9.50%

25.89%

4 Earth-moving equipments

9

10.56%

28.31%

5 Others including Material Handling / Pipeline / Welding

Equipments [NESD]

12

7.92%

22.09%

(xii) Plant and Machinery used in salt works [NESD]

15

6.33%

18.10%

(V) Furniture and fittings [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) General furniture and fittings

10

9.50%

25.89%

(b) Furniture and fittings used in hotels, restaurants and boarding

houses, schools, colleges and other education institutions, libraries,

welfare centres, meeting halls, cinema houses, theatres and

circuses and furniture and fittings let out on hire for used on

occasion of marriages and similar functions

8

11.88%

31.23%

(VI) Motor Vehicles [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) Motor cycles, scooters and other mopeds

10

9.50%

25.89%

(b) Motor buses, motor lorries, motor cars and motor taxies

used in a business of running them on hire

6

15.83%

39.30%

(c) Motor buses, motor lorries, motor cars and motor taxies

other than those used in a business of running them on

8

11.88%

31.23%

(d) Motor tractors, harvesting combines and heavy vehicles

8

11.88%

31.23%

(e) Electrically operated vehicles

8

11.88%

31.23%

(VII) Ships [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) Ocean-going ships

 

 

 

(i) Bulk Carriers and liner vessels

25

3.80%

11.29%

(ii) Crude tankers, product carriers and easy chemical carriers

with or without conventional

20

4.75%

13.91%

(iii) Chemicals and Acid Carriers

 

 

 

1 With Stainless steel tanks

25

3.80%

11.29%

2 With other tanks

20

4.75%

13.91%

(iv) Liquefied gas carriers

30

3.17%

9.50%

(v) Conventional large passenger vessels which are used for

cruise purpose also

30

3.17%

9.50%

(vi) Coastal service ships of all categories

30

3.17%

9.50%

(vii) Offshore supply and support vessels

20

4.75%

13.91%

(viii) Catamarans and other high speed passenger

for ships or boats

20

4.75%

13.91%

(ix) Drill ships

25

3.80%

11.29%

(x) Hovercrafts

15

6.33%

18.10%

(xi) Fishing vessels with wooden hull

10

9.50%

25.89%

(xii) Dredgers, tugs, barges, survey launches and other

similar ships used mainly for dredging

14

6.79%

19.26%

(b) Vessels ordinarily operating on inland waters

 

 

 

(i) Speed boats

13

7.31%

20.58%

(ii) Other vessels

28

3.39%

10.15%

(VIII) Aircrafts or Helicopters [NESD]

20

4.75%

13.91%

(IX) Railway siding, locomotives, rolling stocks,

tramways and railway used by concerns, excluding railway

15

6.33%

18.10%

(X) Ropeway structures [NESD]

15

6.33%

18.10%

(XI) Office equipments [NESD]

5

19.00%

45.07%

(XII) Computers and data processing units [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) Servers and networks

6

15.83%

39.30%

(b) End user devices, such as, desktops, laptops, etc.

3

31.67%

63.16%

(XIII) Laboratory equipment [NESD]

 

 

 

(a) General laboratory equipment

10

9.50%

25.89%

(b) Laboratory equipments used in education institutions

5

19.00%

45.07%

(XIV) Electrical Installations and Equipment [NESD]

10

9.50%

25.89%

(XV) Hydraulic woks, pipelines and sluices [NESD]

15

6.33%

18.10%

Residual Value

The worth of an investment's residual value is its worth at the time of disposal. The residual price should not exceed 5% of the investment's initial price. A firm may employ a variable rate of depreciation, usable life, or resale value than that specified in schedule II of the act. In these circumstances, the corporation should clarify why the gap exists to the investors. They have to attach the justification to the report of financial position by the board members. The directors have to attach the technical report supporting the use of alternative depreciation levels or the residual cost. The experts have to write the technological report.

Also Read: What Is a Dormant Company? Definition and Eligibility

Useful Life – Based on Projection

The useful life is a forecast or prediction that one makes at the time of purchasing. The investment's UL may or may not correspond to the number of production units it generates over its lifetime. The definition of the useful life of a property is the total number of years one can use for business purposes. The volume of output or same units estimated by the business to gain from the property refers to the UL. The UL and degradation levels should adhere to schedule II standards.

Mode of Expression – Percentage vs Years

One can express the depreciation rates as per cent; on the other hand, one can express usable life in years. One can state, for instance, that a manufacturing facility has to depreciate for more than thirty years, and one may also claim that those factory structures can depreciate at 9.5%.

Conclusion

The requirements of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, significantly influence all Indian businesses. As a result, we all must grasp these rules, as they will affect company depreciation accounts. Also, throughout the audits, make sure you charge depreciation per Schedule II of the Act.
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FAQs

Q: What exactly is the carrying amount?

Ans:

This is the value we record a property on the accounting records after degradation and injury losses.

Q: What is a car's depreciation?

Ans:

According to the Companies Act, the WDV depreciation charge is 31.23%, and the SLM depreciation charge is 11.88%.

Q: What is office equipment depreciation?

Ans:

In WDV, the depreciation expense for office supplies is 45.07%, while it is 19% in SLM.

Q: Define the depreciable amount?

Ans:

This is the asset's purchase price minus its residual worth.

Disclaimer :
The information, product and services provided on this website are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis without any warranty or representation, express or implied. Khatabook Blogs are meant purely for educational discussion of financial products and services. Khatabook does not make a guarantee that the service will meet your requirements, or that it will be uninterrupted, timely and secure, and that errors, if any, will be corrected. The material and information contained herein is for general information purposes only. Consult a professional before relying on the information to make any legal, financial or business decisions. Use this information strictly at your own risk. Khatabook will not be liable for any false, inaccurate or incomplete information present on the website. Although every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this website is updated, relevant and accurate, Khatabook makes no guarantees about the completeness, reliability, accuracy, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, product, services or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Khatabook will not be liable for the website being temporarily unavailable, due to any technical issues or otherwise, beyond its control and for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use of or access to, or inability to use or access to this website whatsoever.
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Disclaimer :
The information, product and services provided on this website are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis without any warranty or representation, express or implied. Khatabook Blogs are meant purely for educational discussion of financial products and services. Khatabook does not make a guarantee that the service will meet your requirements, or that it will be uninterrupted, timely and secure, and that errors, if any, will be corrected. The material and information contained herein is for general information purposes only. Consult a professional before relying on the information to make any legal, financial or business decisions. Use this information strictly at your own risk. Khatabook will not be liable for any false, inaccurate or incomplete information present on the website. Although every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this website is updated, relevant and accurate, Khatabook makes no guarantees about the completeness, reliability, accuracy, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, product, services or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Khatabook will not be liable for the website being temporarily unavailable, due to any technical issues or otherwise, beyond its control and for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use of or access to, or inability to use or access to this website whatsoever.