written by khatabook | November 21, 2022

All You Need To Know About Lodging a Complaint to Police in India

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Table of Content


A complaint to the police is a formal accusation against a person or organisation for committing an offence. This can be a complaint against any kind of activity which is deemed to be a harm to any citizen or disrupts the social or administrative order. The victim or a witness of the crime usually makes the complaint. The police uses the complaint to investigate the violation and to gather evidence to prove that the person accused of the crime is guilty. The complaint is also used to charge the person with the offence. The complaint is an essential part of the criminal and civil justice system because it is the first step in bringing a person to justice.

Did you know? Cyber Crimes can also be reported in regular police stations in India, which then forward a case to the cyber cell.

What is a Complaint to Police?

A police complaint is a formal document filed with the police to request assistance in investigating a crime or addressing a public safety concern. The complaint outlines the specific details of the incident or concern and provides contact information for the complainant. The police will review the complaint and determine whether or not to open an investigation. If an investigation is opened, the police will work to gather evidence and identify any suspects involved. The study results will be presented to the complainant, and appropriate action will be taken based on the findings.

What is the Purpose of a Police Complaint?

The purpose of a police complaint is to provide law enforcement with a formal, written statement detailing an incident or crime. The complaint is usually signed by the victim or witnesses and gives law enforcement essential details about what happened, when, and where. The complaint also allows law enforcement to investigate the incident and gather evidence to support the victims or witnesses statements.

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When to File a Police Complaint?

If you have been a victim of a crime, you should file a police complaint as soon as possible. By filing a police complaint, you are helping to ensure that the perpetrator is brought to justice and that other potential victims are protected. There are a few things to keep in mind when filing a police complaint. 

  • First, try to remain calm and provide as much information as possible. Include as many details as you can remember, such as the time and place of the incident, what happened, and any identifying information about the perpetrator. 
  • Second, do not hesitate to ask for help from the police. They are there to assist you and will do everything they can to ensure that your complaint is filed correctly. 
  • Finally, be prepared to answer any questions that the police may have. They will likely want to know why you are filing the complaint and what you hope to accomplish.

What are the Components of a Police Complaint?

The components of a police complaint are the victim, the offender, the incident, and the evidence. 

  • The victim is the person harmed or experienced the criminal act. 
  • The offender is the person who committed the crime. 
  • The incident is the crime that occurred. 
  • The evidence is the physical or eyewitness evidence that links the offender to the crime.

What are the Grounds for Making a Complaint against the police? 

There are several grounds on which a complaint can be made against the police, including:

  • The police have acted unlawfully or in an unfair, oppressive, or unjustified manner. 
  • They have breached their duties or acted in a way that is inconsistent with their powers. 
  • That the police have failed to provide a service that is reasonable or adequate
  • Police have harassed, victimised, or discriminated against someone.
  • They have breached the confidentiality of information
  • The right to counsel or the right to remain silent has been compromised by the police.
  • That there has been corrupt or illegal behaviour on the part of the police.

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Who Can File a Police Complaint? 

In India, any person can file a complaint to police, also known as a First Information Report (FIR), regardless of whether they are the victim or a witness to the crime. The complaint can be filed in person, by post, or through an authorised agent and must be made to the police station that has jurisdiction over the area where the crime occurred. The complaint should include the complainant's name, address, and contact information, as well as a detailed description of the incident.

What are the Things to be Included In a Police Complaint?

complaint to police should include the following:

1. The name, address, and telephone number of the person filing the complaint

2. The name and badge number of the officer(s) involved

3. The date, time, and location of the incident

4. A detailed description of the incident, including any physical evidence

5. The names and contact information of any witnesses

6. Any other relevant information

What are the Steps for Filing a Police Complaint?

1. You must contact the police department where the incident occurred in the town, city, or district. 

2. You will need to provide the police with as much detailed information about the incident as possible. 

3. The police will then investigate the incident and may interview witnesses or collect evidence. 

4. Once the police have completed their investigation, they will determine whether or not to file charges. 

5. If charges are filed, the case will be referred to the prosecutor's office.

6. The prosecutor's office will decide whether to pursue the case.

7. If the case is pursued, it will go to trial.

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What to do if You've Been a Victim of a Crime?

If you have been the victim of a crime, you can do a few things. 

  • First, you should report the crime to the police, which will help them investigate the crime and catch the perpetrator. 
  • Second, you should get in touch with a victim advocate or counsellor who can help you deal with the emotional aftermath of the crime. 
  • Finally, it would be best to consider taking legal action against the perpetrator. This can help you get justice and compensation for what you have been through.

What Happens After You File a  Complaint in Police Station?

  • The first step is filing a police report, which can be done by going to the police station or calling the non-emergency line. 
  • Once the report is filed, an officer will be assigned to the case and begin investigating. The officer will gather evidence, interview witnesses, and speak to the victim. 
  • Once the investigation is complete, the officer will submit a report to the prosecutor. The prosecutor will then decide whether or not to file charges. If charges are filed, the case will go to court.

FIR vs Police Complaint

A police officer begins an investigation when an FIR is filed. In contrast, until instructed so by the appropriate authority, a police officer does not conduct an inquiry in case of a complaint. The Magistrate does not initially take any cognisance unless informed of a specific FIR.

The police must investigate the incident when the FIR is filed, interview every witness, and submit a final report. If the police conclude that the complaint lacks merit or that there is insufficient evidence to support a prosecution, further action is withdrawn.

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How Can You File a Complaint to Police Online?

  • The process for filing an online complaint varies by state.
  • It can be obtained online if the relevant state or municipality offers such a service.
  • One must visit the website and adhere to the instructions provided there.
  • The complainant's email address will receive a copy of the complaint/FIR.
  • When making a complaint, the complainant must provide a working email address and/or a WhatsApp contact.

Conclusion

In India, considering the massive count of its population, there must be a strong and smooth police department that is always available for the masses. While their functioning is different, the process for a commoner to lodge a complaint to the police is not quite difficult.
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FAQs

Q: Where can I file a police complaint other than a police station?

Ans:

Without visiting the police station, a complaint can be submitted both online and offline to the police. It may also be addressed to the Dy. SP or the Police Commissioner.

Q: What is the difference between a police complaint and an FIR?

Ans:

There are a few key differences between a police complaint and an FIR. 

  • An FIR is a formal document filed with the police, while a  complaint to police can be filed with the police or with another authority, such as a court. 
  • An FIR must contain the names of the accused and the complainant and other essential details about the incident, while a police complaint can be made anonymously. 
  • An FIR can only be filed concerning cognisable offences, while a police complaint can be filed for any offence. 
  • Finally, an FIR must be filed in person, while a complaint to police can be made online or over the phone.

Q: Can I file a complaint to police against the police?

Ans:

In India, a police complaint can be filed against the police for misconduct. However, the complaint must be made in writing and lodged with the superintendent of police or the commissioner of police. The complaint should contain all the relevant details, such as the time, place, and date of the incident, the name of the police officer involved, and any witnesses. It should also state the grounds on which the complaint is being made.

Q: What information will you need to provide to file a police complaint?

Ans:

The information you will need to provide to file a complaint to the police includes the following: the name, address, and telephone number of the person filing the complaint; the name, address, and telephone number of the person against whom the complaint is being filed; a description of the incident, including the date, time, and location; and any other relevant information.

Q: What to do if you witness a crime?

Ans:

If you witness a crime, you should call the police immediately and give them a detailed description of what happened. It would help if you also tried to get as much information about the suspect as possible, such as their appearance, clothing, and other distinguishing features.

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The information, product and services provided on this website are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis without any warranty or representation, express or implied. Khatabook Blogs are meant purely for educational discussion of financial products and services. Khatabook does not make a guarantee that the service will meet your requirements, or that it will be uninterrupted, timely and secure, and that errors, if any, will be corrected. The material and information contained herein is for general information purposes only. Consult a professional before relying on the information to make any legal, financial or business decisions. Use this information strictly at your own risk. Khatabook will not be liable for any false, inaccurate or incomplete information present on the website. Although every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this website is updated, relevant and accurate, Khatabook makes no guarantees about the completeness, reliability, accuracy, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, product, services or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Khatabook will not be liable for the website being temporarily unavailable, due to any technical issues or otherwise, beyond its control and for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use of or access to, or inability to use or access to this website whatsoever.
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Disclaimer :
The information, product and services provided on this website are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis without any warranty or representation, express or implied. Khatabook Blogs are meant purely for educational discussion of financial products and services. Khatabook does not make a guarantee that the service will meet your requirements, or that it will be uninterrupted, timely and secure, and that errors, if any, will be corrected. The material and information contained herein is for general information purposes only. Consult a professional before relying on the information to make any legal, financial or business decisions. Use this information strictly at your own risk. Khatabook will not be liable for any false, inaccurate or incomplete information present on the website. Although every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this website is updated, relevant and accurate, Khatabook makes no guarantees about the completeness, reliability, accuracy, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, product, services or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Khatabook will not be liable for the website being temporarily unavailable, due to any technical issues or otherwise, beyond its control and for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use of or access to, or inability to use or access to this website whatsoever.